Have you been offered spine surgery?
Your spine is made of many bones called vertebrae, and your spinal cord runs through a canal in the center of these bones. Nerve roots split from the cord and travel between the vertebrae into various areas of your body. When these nerve roots become pinched or damaged, the resulting symptoms are called radiculopathy.
A herniated disc is a relatively common condition that can occur anywhere along the spine, but most often affects the lower back or neck region. Also known as a slipped disc or ruptured disc, a herniated disc develops when one of the cushion-like pads between the vertebrae moves out of position and presses on adjacent nerves.
The intervertebral disc is composed of a ring called the annulus fibrosis that encloses a gelatinous inner structure called the nucleus pulposus. The discs are kept in position with the help of endplates between two vertebral bodies. The intervertebral discs act as shock absorbers.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spaces within your spine, which can put pressure on the nerves that travel through the spine. Spinal stenosis occurs most often in the lower back and the neck. Spinal stenosis occurs mostly in people older than 50. Younger people with a spine injury or a narrow spinal canal are also at risk. Spinal stenosis is most commonly caused by wear-and-tear changes in the spine related to osteoarthritis.
Sacroiliitis is the inflammation of one or both of your sacroiliac joints. These two joints are located where the sacrum (the triangular last section of the spine) meets the ilium (a part of the pelvis). Sacroiliitis is a common source of lower back pain or pain in the buttocks or thighs. It is often difficult to diagnose as many other conditions cause pain in the same locations.
Coccydynia is a pain in the region of the coccyx, a triangular bone present at the bottom of the spine. Coccydynia is also known as tailbone pain. The pain is usually caused by some kind of trauma, which also causes inflammation of the surrounding tissue that worsens the pain. The condition can make it difficult to sit down on a chair comfortably.
Cervicogenic headache is referred pain (pain perceived as occurring in a part of the body other than its true source) perceived in the head from a source in the neck. Cervicogenic headache is a secondary headache, which means that it is caused by another illness or physical issue.
A migraine is a type of headache characterized by severe throbbing pain on one side of the head accompanied by secondary symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound or smell. Other symptoms may include lightheadedness and blurry vision. A migraine may be preceded by an aura, a neurological warning sign, which may occur 10 to 15 minutes before an attack. These include flashes of light, tingling sensations, or speech problems. Sometimes, you may have migraines without an aura. A migraine may last from a few hours to 3 days.
The peripheral nervous system transmits signals from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. Any disruption in the normal functioning of the peripheral nervous system can result in numbness, pain, and weakness in your hands and feet as well as other parts of your body. Peripheral nerves are fragile and easily damaged. A nerve injury can affect your brain's ability to communicate with your muscles and organs. Damage to the peripheral nerves is called peripheral neuropathy.
Neuralgia is a sharp, stabbing, severe pain felt along the path of an irritated or damaged nerve. Pain may occur anywhere in the body but is most common in the neck and face. The pain may be triggered by nerve compression or injury, old age, or an underlying disease such as diabetes, herpes zoster infection, HIV, syphilis, and chronic renal insufficiency. It may also result due to chemical irritation, certain medications, or surgery.
A rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint that provides support and enables a wide range of motion. A major injury to these tendons may result in rotator cuff tears. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged and older individuals.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic (lasting greater than six months) pain condition that most often affects one or both limbs (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury. CRPS is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and changes in skin color, temperature, and/or swelling in the affected area. CRPS symptoms vary in severity and duration, although some cases are mild and eventually go away.
Trigger Points/Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles. Myofascial pain is a chronic, painful condition that affects the fascia (connective tissue that covers the muscles). MPS might involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. In some cases, the area where a person experiences the pain might not be where the myofascial pain generator is located.